El-Ashmunein area is located 8km away from northwest of Mallawyand it was the capital of the 15thNome of Upper Egypt, its name was derived from "Khemeno" which means number 8, as its priests were the founders of the theory that says that the world is created by eight Gods. The word became "shmun"in Coptic then "shemeno" and then "Al-Ashmunein" in Arabic. It is also known in Greek by "Hermopolis" which means city of the God "Hermes" whom the Greeks connected with "the Egyptian Deity Djehuti".
El-Ashmunein did not reached its high position in the ancient Egyptian religion not only because of the Eightfold (Ogdoad) but also because of being the center of the cult of god "Djehuti" (god of wisdom and knowledge in ancient Egypt). King Amenhotep III has constructed a temple forDjehuti in the past and nothing remains but a colossal for the god on the shape of the Baboon. This colossal is considered the hugest statue for a Baboon that was ever found in Egypt.
As for Tuna el-Gebel, it is located about 7 km away from el-Ashmunein and follows MarkazMalawi. Tuna el-Gebel was the capital of the 15thNomeof Upper Egypt.
The name was taken from the old Egyptian word "taheny" which means the lake, referring to the lake which was formed by the Nile flow, the word became "tawnes" in Greek, then "tuna" in Arabic, and the word mountain (Gebel) was added to it for its location in a mountainous area.
Tuna el-Gebel Necropolis has a special importance as it presents the artistic mixture between the Ancient Egyptian and the Grecian art. The site contains the following monuments: the Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten, the catacombs which contains a huge number ofrock cut passages to bury the sacred birds of ibis and mummified monkeys, and the tomb of the high priest "Petoziris".