Aswan Cemetery, which is one of the oldest cemeteries of the whole Islamic world, is located in the eastern parts of Aswan. It consists of two cemeteries one in the north and the other in the south. The climateof Aswan had a great effect in preserving the tombs of this Cemetery. The severe dryness saved the ancient buildings even if they were built by the weakest building materials like the mud bricks which were the most popular material used in this period due to the economic condition of the city and its people that did not allow them to use the expensive rocks that were used during the PharaonicPeriod.
The tombs (80) in number scattered in the two main Cemeteries remained consolidated until before 1930. The southern cemetery includes the tombs no. 1 to 31 in addition to some tombs that do not carry any numbers. The northern cemetery on the other hand includes the tombs no.33 to 55in addition to some tombs that do not carry any numbers.
At the middle of this century, the urban development, expansion and roads construction necessitated the destruction of a large number of those tombs and only a few samples remained. The history of this Cemetery goes back to the Second Century of Hijra (8th C. AD) to the Seventh Century of Hijra (13th C. AD)
The building system
The Cemeteries were built on the load bearing wall system in compact molds as all the Islamic monuments. The prevailing building materialused in these tombs was the mud brick except for some parts like the arches, domes necks and domes which were built of bricks.Stone strips were used in some of these tombs like the tomb number 13 in the eastern group of the southern Cemetery, also tombs number 25 and 10 in the same group.Some plaster frescoes appeared in some tombs like the tomb no. 12 in the eastern group of the southern Cemetery, the tomb no.31 from the same group and the tomb no. 5 from the western group of the southern Cemetery.
Although upper Egypt contains many quarries of the colorful tremendous sandstone, it was not used in the Islamic era in this area except in the tombstones only, and may be that was because of the financial condition of the people in this region.